The reasons for the publication, and now the republication, of the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia are found in TR's historical importance, and also in the nature of the man who was the twenty-sixth President of the United States. "Roosevelt was a many-sided man and every side was like an electric battery," said his friend the nature-writer John Burroughs. "Such versatility, such vitality, such thoroughness, such copiousness, have rarely been united in one man." TR has been called the "most interesting American." 1
Theodore Roosevelt was naturalist, hunter, conservationist, rancher in the "wild West," historian, soldier, prolific writer on diverse subjects, explorer, social reformer, politician, intellectual, and public official. He was the Colonel of the Rough Riders, and the first American to win the Nobel Peace Prize. He put a river on the map, Brazil's "Rio Roosevelt," over 900 miles in length; and he started the Panama Canal. He was a deputy sheriff in the Dakota Territory, and also President of the Board of Police Commissioners of New York City. He hunted, collected, and wrote about wildlife in North America, Africa, and South America. For a time he led his own political party, the Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party. He was President of the American Historical Association. He was a major figure in American politics and government for nearly forty years. TR was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1881 at the age of twenty-three, and became President of the United States in 1901, at forty-two the youngest President before or since.
Theodore Roosevelt's many-sidedness and versatility call to mind the concept of the "universal man" in Renaissance Italy, and he was indeed a kind of American Renaissance man. Only Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin in American history seem obvious rivals to the multiplicity of Roosevelt's roles and accomplishments. 2
Theodore Roosevelt's "greatness," however, has been the subject of hot debate among historians. Following a period of ascendancy after his death in 1919, TR's historical reputation went through a period of marked decline in the 1930s and 1940s, recovered dramatically in the 1950s, went down again in the 1960s, and began to rise in the 1970s. In polls of American historians in the 1980s, TR was ranked as one of the four or five greatest Presidents of the United States. But at all times since he appeared on the public scene in the 1880s, Roosevelt has had both ardent admirers and severely negative critics. Yet, while Theodore Roosevelt's greatness can be debated, his importance in American history is as obvious as his face on Mount Rushmore. 3
To TR's friends and admirers who established the Roosevelt Memorial Association in 1919, it seemed clear that a figure of such importance, and of such enclyclopedic interests and activities, merited a "cyclopedia," a comprehensive reference work that would be a guide to TR's thoughts, career, opinions, and philosophy in his own words.
Theodore Roosevelt died on January 6, 1919, and a few days later the Roosevelt Memorial Association was founded by TR's friends and associates. The Association was formally chartered by special Act of Congress, May 31, 1920, "to perpetuate the memory of Theodore Roosevelt for the benefit of the people of the United States of America and the world...." The name of the organization was changed to the Theodore Roosevelt Association in 1953. Led in the years 1919-1957 by Secretary and Director Hermann Hagedorn (1882-1964), poet, author, historian, friend and biographer of TR, the Association engaged in a wide spectrum of programs and activities to preserve TR's memory.
The Association established four public sites: the reconstructed Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace, New York City, in 1923; Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park, Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York, in 1928; Theodore Roosevelt Island in the Potomac in Washington, D.C., given to the federal government in 1932; and Sagamore Hill, TR's Oyster Bay home, opened to the public in 1953. From the beginning, the Association collected research materials, and worked to encourage scholarship and make known and accessible the historical record of Roosevelt's life, career, and thought. The Theodore Roosevelt Collection, consisting of over 12,000 printed items, 10,000 photographs, and thousands of manuscripts, papers, and letters, was donated by the Association to Harvard University in 1943; and the Theodore Roosevelt Association Film Collection of over 140,000 feet of film was given to the Library of Congress in the 1960s. Through the years, the Association also published an impressive list of books. 4
The Association's Committee on Publications was established in 1920, with Mark Sullivan, former editor of Collier's, R. J. Cuddihy, publisher of Literary Digest, E. A. Van Valkenburg, publisher of the Philadelphia North American, and Arthur W. Page, editor of World's Work, as members. Roosevelt in the Bad Lands by Hermann Hagedorn, and Roosevelt in the Kansas City Star, TR's World War I editorials, edited by Ralph Stout, were published by the Association in 1921. The Americanism of Theodore Roosevelt, excerpts from Roosevelt's writings, edited by Hagedorn, came out in 1923. In 1923-1926, the Association sponsored the Charles Scribner's Sons Memorial (24 volumes) and National (20 volumes) editions of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt, edited by Hagedorn. And in the Association's Annual Report 1924, Hagedorn announced that "a Roosevelt Cyclopedia or Roosevelt Thesaurus" was being edited by Professor Albert Bushnell Hart of Harvard University. 5
Albert Bushnell Hart (1854-1943) was a classmate of Theodore Roosevelt's at Harvard, Class of 1880, and like TR a Phi Beta Kappa. Hart received a Ph.D. degree at the University of Freiburg in Germany in 1883, and that same year joined the faculty of Harvard. He taught at Harvard 1883-1926. One of the first generation of professionally trained historians in the United States, a prolific author and editor of historical works, Albert Bushnell Hart became, as Samuel Eliot Morison says, "The Grand Old Man" of American history, looking the part with his "patriarchal full beard and flowing moustaches." Hart wrote Formation of the Union (1892), Samuel Portland Chase (1899), Essentials of American History (1905), Slavery and Abolition (1906), and many other books. He was editor of the distinguished "American Nation" series (28 volumes, 1903-1918) and other series on American history, of many source books and guides for the study of American history, and, with Andrew C. McLaughlin, of the Cyclopedia of American Government (3 volumes, 1914). He was an editor of the American Historical Review for fourteen years, and president of both the American Historical Association and the American Political Science Association. 6
Hart was a devoted friend and follower of Theodore Roosevelt, and was elected as a Roosevelt delegate to the Republican convention of 1912. He became an enthusiastic trustee and supporter of the Roosevelt Memorial Association, and said that from the time of TR's death he had the idea of editing a Roosevelt cyclopedia. The projected reference work would, Hart explained, "present in alphabetical arrangement extracts sufficiently numerous and comprehensive to display all the phases of Roosevelt's activities and opinions as expressed by him." He wrote Hagedorn: "...What we are after is the crisp, sharp, biting sparks that flew from the Roosevelt brain." Hart told the survivors of the Harvard Class of 1880 that editing the cyclopedia "will be a very interesting and agreeable service to the memory of our great classmate." But from the beginning the project was plagued with problems. 7
Hart's time was taken up with other commitments. He was editor of the American Year Book, 1926-1932, edited a five-volume history of Massachusetts in 1927-1930, and worked as the official historian of the George Washington bicentennial commission in the 1920s and 1930s. Hart had to postpone the cyclopedia, and asked the Association for research and clerical staff. But the Executive Committee of the Roosevelt Memorial Association delayed appropriations for the cyclopedia, because the expense was "so great," and it was not until May of 1928 that a budget was approved for the cyclopedia, although the project had been publicly announced years before. Finally, in 1931 Hart presented a rough draft of the cyclopedia to Hagedorn. But the book needed much more work. By now the elderly Hart "began to decline," says Samuel Eliot Morison; and Hagedorn reported to the RMA Executive Committee that Hart could not finish the project "because of his advanced years." Accordingly, in 1939 Hagedorn assigned the cyclopedia to Herbert Ronald Ferleger (1914-1973), a graduate student and professional researcher who had done work for the Association.
Ferleger, who graduated from Temple University in 1934, had been a Research Fellow at the Brookings Institute, and had taught at Princeton. He received a Ph.D. in political science from Columbia University in 1942. 8 Ferleger completed his work in 1940. William Allen White (1868-1944), the editor of the Emporia Gazette, Emporia, Kansas, a respected and beloved public figure, a trustee of the Association who had been a close friend of TR's, wrote a foreword for the book. And at last, on January 6, 1941, the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia was published by the Association. The total costs to the RMA from 1928 to 1941 in salaries, printing, and other expenses came to $22,509.52. The Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia represented the vision and plan of Albert Bushnell Hart, the dedication and patience of Hermann Hagedorn, and the research and hard work of Herbert Ronald Ferleger. 9
In later years, the Association continued its publications program. The Association sponsored the publication by the Harvard University Press of The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (8 volumes, 1951-1954), edited by Elting E. Morison, John M. Blum, and others. The Free Citizen, selections from TR's writing, edited by Hermann Hagedorn, was published in 1956, and William Davison Johnston's photographic biography, TR: Champion of the Strenuous Life, came out in 1958. A guide book for Sagamore Hill by Hagedorn was published in 1953, and Gary G. Roth prepared a revised edition in 1977. The "Theodore Roosevelt Association American Revolution Bicentennial Edition'' of Theodore Roosevelt's 1888 biography of Gouverneur Morris was published in 1975. The Association began publication of the quarterly Theodore Roosevelt Association Journal in 1975.
III Theodore Roosevelt, throughout his many-sided career, was a prolific writer on diverse subjects. He published two papers on birds while he was in college, and his first book, The Naval War of 1812, a five-hundred page scholarly work, came out in 1882, when TR was twenty-three. Roosevelt wrote biographies of Thomas Hart Benton (1887), Gouverneur Morris (1888), and Oliver Cromwell (1900); a history of New York City (1891); and a classic narrative history of the American frontier, The Winning of the West (four volumes, 1889-1896). TR's trilogy on his experiences in the West, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman (1885), Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (1888), and The Wilderness Hunter (1893), helped formulate the images of cowboy life and the old West that have become an important part of the American heritage. TR's later books on outdoor adventure and natural history, including African Game Trails (1910), Through the Brazilian Wilderness (1914), and A Book-Lover's Holidays in the Open (1916), delighted the general public and won the respect of professional naturalists. His essays, published over the years in Century, Scribner's, Outlook , and other periodicals, covered a dazzling variety of topics, from poetry to polar exploration. His political speeches and articles were regularly collected and published in a long line of volumes, such as Essays on Practical Politics (1888), American Ideals (1897), The Strenuous Life (1900), The New Nationalism (1910), Progressive Principles (1913), and The Great Adventure (1918).
Counting collections of speeches, essays, and state papers, Theodore Roosevelt produced over fifty volumes in his lifetime—and he lived sixty years. Lawrence F. Abbott, who worked with TR when the former President was Contributing Editor of the Outlook magazine, once roughly estimated that Roosevelt published perhaps 2,500,000 words, and wrote a total of maybe 18,000,000 words when his letters are included in the count. Certainly, TR left a prodigious legacy of words in addition to his other achievements. About 550,000 of those words are in the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia. 10
The Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia, published in 1941, consists of 674 pages with well over 4,000 quotations arranged alphabetically by topic or subject, from "Abbey Theatre" to "Youth." Thousands of topics and subjects are listed, counting the extensive cross-reference entries. The original source of each quotation is given, and if the passage appears in the Charles Scribner's Sons editions of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt (1923-1926), volume and page numbers are listed for the National (20 volumes) and/or Memorial (24 volumes) editions. A guide or chart for the Scribner's Memorial and National editions is provided in the "Editors' Note" at the beginning of the Cyclopedia, listing the basic contents of each volume. Most of the quotations are taken from the Scribner's editions of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt, but approximately 380 quotations in the Cyclopedia, not counting excerpts from letters, are from articles, speeches, and other sources not included in the Scribner's editions. Additionally, over forty recorded conversations are quoted, most of these not in the Scribner's editions. 11
The editors of the Cyclopedia, Albert Bushnell Hart and Herbert Ronald Ferleger, unfortunately did not make use of the unpublished letters in the Theodore Roosevelt Papers at the Library of Congress or of other collections of unpublished papers. And the eight-volume Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, based on the Theodore Roosevelt Papers at the Library of Congress and other collections, came out in the 1950s, and therefore was not available to the editors. Only one unpublished letter is quoted in the Cyclopedia: TR to the Rev. William W. Moir, October 10, 1898, pp. 534-535, explaining how to pronounce the name Roosevelt. But fortunately many published TR letters were available to the editors in the 1920s and 1930s, most notably in Theodore Roosevelt's Letters to His Children (1919), covering the years 1898-1911, edited by Joseph Bucklin Bishop, included in both Scribner's National and Memorial editions; Letters from Theodore Roosevelt to Anna Roosevelt Cowles, 1870-1918 (1924); Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge, 1884-1918 (1925), two volumes; My Brother Theodore Roosevelt (1921) by Corinne Roosevelt Robinson; and Theodore Roosevelt and His Time, Shown in His Letters (1920), two volumes, by Joseph Bucklin Bishop, included in the Memorial edition. Bishop, whose biography had been authorized by TR before the former President's death, had complete access to what became the collection of Theodore Roosevelt Papers at the Library of Congress. Over 670 quotations in the Cyclopedia are from letters by TR. 12
The topics and subjects included in the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia cover the full range of TR's activities and opinions. Issues of TR's times, like "Silver Issue," "Recall of Judicial Decisions," and "Trust Legislation," and periods and events in Roosevelt's career, such as "New York Assembly-Roosevelt's Service in," "Governor of New York," and "Roosevelt's Reception in Europe" (1910), are listed in the Cyclopedia. Roosevelt's views on the historical events of his era, such as "Spanish-American War," "Russo-Japanese War," "Panic of 1907" and "Election of 1916," are given. Some 149 people are listed as subjects in the Cyclopedia, from historical figures before TR's times, like Oliver Cromwell, Frederick the Great, and John Marshall, to TR's contemporaries, including Jane Addams, William Jennings Bryan, Mark Hanna, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Pancho Villa, Woodrow Wilson, and Booker T. Washington. Roosevelt's comments on writers are given, from Dante to Dickens to Edwin Arlington Robinson. Institutions, groups, and organizations, such as the Methodist Church, Mugwumps, Y.M.C.A., U.S. Senate, Audubon Societies, and Progressive Party, are listed. Birds and animals—ousel, wapiti, elephant, mocking- bird, moose, and many others—are described in the words of the hunter-naturalist TR. Historical topics from before Roosevelt's era are covered, including the fall of the Roman Empire, the Mongol Invasions, the French Revolution, and the War of 1812. Many of the entries in the Cyclopedia are general topics, like "citizenship," "experts in government," "ideals," "reading," "tolerance," "women in politics," and "scholarship." Other entries are specific references, such as "Socialism in Sweden," "Standard Oil Company,'' "Bryce's American Commonwealth," and "Northern Securities Case."
Theodore Roosevelt was a great phrase-maker and coiner of terms, and most of TR's famous slogans, epithets, titles, sayings, and characterizations are listed in the Cyclopedia, including "lunatic fringe," "Square Deal," "malefactors of great wealth," "Big Stick," "muck-rakers," "Bull Moose," "nature fakers," "polyglot boarding house," "weasel words," "New Nationalism," "broomstick preparedness," and "strenuous life." A few others, however, are not in the Cyclopedia, such as "Ananias Club" (liars) and "bully pulpit" (the White House). Unfortunately, the editors made no systematic attempt to trace or indicate the origin and first use of a term or phrase. The earliest use is often given, but not in all cases. This failure to include notes on the history of phrases and terms is a real limitation in the Cyclopedia as a reference work. The editors were clearly more interested in presenting Roosevelt's thought than in producing a guide to familiar quotations, though most of the famous quotations were included in the book.
The quotations given are often lengthy, thereby preserving much of the original context, and providing an accurate view of Roosevelt's thinking. Usually quotations on a topic are taken from a variety of sources over a period of many years, thus showing the development and the remarkable degree of continuity in TR's thought. In some cases, the quotations selected do not give the full scope of Roosevelt's opinions on a particular subject. For instance, only favorable remarks are quoted for William McKinley and Robert M. LaFollette, whereas TR was also critical of both leaders, particularly Senator LaFollette. But on most subjects an accurate, balanced, and full picture of TR's thinking is given. For instance, the quotations on William Howard Taft show TR's changing views of a man who was at one time a close friend and associate and later a political opponent. Likewise, the coverage of the Panama Canal is thorough. Many of the remarks quoted are candid and colorful, and the private as well as the public Roosevelt is revealed in the Cyclopedia. Anyone familiar with TR's words will probably regret that some particular quotations were not included in the Cyclopedia. But on the whole, the editors did an excellent job in selecting quotations that show the totality of the many-sided Roosevelt.
The chief weaknesses of the Cyclopedia are, as noted, that the editors did not use the then unpublished letters by TR, and did not trace the roots or indicate the first uses of famous phrases and key concepts. The strengths of the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia are many. The choice of topics and subjects is almost exhaustive of the possibilities. The book is thoroughly cross-referenced. The editors used a wide variety of sources, from speeches and state papers to recorded conversations and letters to family members, from little-known articles to Roosevelt's numerous books. The quotations given are for the most part well-chosen, and care was taken to present views on a particular topic expressed over a wide span of time, and to give a full and accurate summary of Roosevelt's thought. No attempt was made to tailor Roosevelt's views to fit the ideological fashions of later periods. TR "in his miraculous abundance," as William Allen White said, is found in the Cyclopedia. The editors indeed accomplished their stated purpose: to present in one volume "the essence of Theodore Roosevelt-the ideals, principles, and convictions for which he lived; the thoughts, views, and opinions he expressed on a multitude of issues." The Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia is a valulable scholarly work that will remain of use as long as anyone is interested in TR. 13
IV The "essence" of Theodore Roosevelt's philosophy of life and of government, given in the pages of the Cyclopedia, is found in a few central beliefs and concepts. Roosevelt believed in living on the basis of "realizable ideals." He told the students at Groton in 1904: "Keep your eyes on the stars, but remember to keep your feet on the ground." TR followed the "strenuous life" of purposeful activism. He believed that you found yourself and realized yourself in being involved with, rather than detached from, institutions, other people, causes, jobs, political parties, movements, and everyday life. TR admired, and he was, "the man who is actually in the arena." Roosevelt believed in hard work, family life, performance of duty, outdoor adventure and recreation, reading and learning as much as possible, getting involved in public affairs, seeking challenges and not shrinking from risk or danger, developing to the fullest whatever gifts and abilities one has, doing as many things as possible in life, and living joyously and without complaint or self-pity. "The joy of living is his who has the heart to demand it," TR wrote. "Life is a great adventure," he said. 14
Roosevelt was aware that his view of life was simple. "The vital things in life are the things that foolish people look upon as commonplace," he said. But he knew that the realization of even "realizable ideals" was far from easy, either in public or private life, and he was well aware that not every story or human endeavor had a happy ending. He saw much of human existence as a mystery. H. G. Wells said that Theodore Roosevelt "sticks in my mind ... as a very symbol of the creative will in man, its limitations, its doubtful adequacy, its valiant persistence amidst perplexities and confusions." 15
Elihu Root, who served in TR's cabinet, once said that "Theodore Roosevelt was the greatest teacher of the essentials of popular self-government the world has ever known ..." This goes too far. But Roosevelt, through word and by the teaching example of deed, outlined for Americans of his own time and for posterity some of the basic principles of modern democracy. He believed in responsible citizenship, and in a government responsive to the needs of the people. He believed in nationalism, because in nationalism he saw the potential to overcome the centrifugal pulls of parochialism, special interests, and selfish individualism, and the means to bring coherence, purpose, and progress to a pluralistic country. He believed in institutions, organizations, political parties, and governmental agencies and powers, because he saw the need for collective action, control, and direction in a complex world. "The growth in the complexity of community life means the partial substitution of collectivism for individualism...," he wrote. But TR viewed the individual as the source of success for any collective endeavor, and the character of the individual as the determining factor in the worth and survival of society. "The foundation-stone of national life is, and ever must be, the high individual character of the average citizen," he said. 16
Theodore Roosevelt's general political philosophy, which as President he called the "Square Deal," and later titled the "New Nationalism," flowed from his views of the lessons of American history and the needs of the twentieth century. The Square Deal or New Nationalism was a synthesis of the two chief and antagonistic philosophies in American political history—the philosophies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.
Hamiltonians believed in nationalism and a strong, activist federal government led by the President. Jeffersonians in contrast favored states' rights, laissez-faire in economics, and the dominance of Congress within a weak federal government. Hamiltonians tended to be elitist and favor business interests, while the Jeffersonians preached democracy and championed the common man. Theodore Roosevelt's solution to the problems of modern America was, as the historian George E. Mowry puts it, to combine "Hamiltonian means with Jeffersonian ends." 17
TR taught that a strong government and a nationalist approach to problems, as advocated by Alexander Hamilton, but minus Hamilton's elitist paternalism and big business bias, should be used to serve Thomas Jefferson's concept of the democracy of the common man, minus Jefferson's beliefs in states' rights and laissez-faire. The President, who is the "steward of the people," as TR put it, was to provide executive leadership in this system of the Hamiltonian-Jeffersonian synthesis. TR said that modern Americans should be "Hamiltonian in their belief in a strong and efficient National Government and Jeffersonian in their belief in the people as the ultimate authority, and in the welfare of the people as the end of the government." If all this sounds familiar, the historian Elting E. Morison wrote in 1984, "it is because Theodore Roosevelt laid the foundations for the way we have been doing things ever since." 18
Theodore Roosevelt arrived on the public scene at a time when the complexities and contours of modern, industrial, urban, pluralistic America became apparent. Roosevelt wanted to preserve traditional American and Judeo-Christian values, particularly in morality, family life, and constitutional democracy, and at the same time, for the sake of saving the best of the past and making the most of modern opportunities for progress, he favored adopting such changes and reforms necessary to meet new conditions, problems, and challenges. Both TR's traditionalism and his reform spirit are evident in the Hamiltonian-Jeffersonian synthesis of the Square Deal and New Nationalism. Roosevelt was remarkably consistent in his code of basic beliefs and values over a period of many years in public life, but he was ever ready to take up new means and methods to realize old ideals. "The doctrines we preach reach back to the Golden Rule and the Sermon on the Mount. They reach back to the commandments delivered at Sinai," TR said in 1912. "All that we are doing is to apply those doctrines in the shape necessary to make them available for meeting the living issues of our own day," 19
Some see TR as the "apostle of the obvious," or, as one historian put it, "a muscular and combative Polonius." To many others, in the past and down to the present, Theodore Roosevelt's life and words have been, and are, a source of inspiration. To some Roosevelt will appear antique, dated. To others he seems everlastingly relevant. But whatever one's view, the contents of the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia deserve the attention of all as an important part of the American heritage. Theodore Roosevelt is with us still in many ways both obvious and subtle, and to come to terms with his beliefs and ideas is to learn much about the United States. 20
John Allen Gable
1.) "Letter from John Burroughs," in Theodore Roosevelt: Memorial Addresses Delivered Before the Century
Association, February 9, 1919, The Century Association, New York, 1919, pp. 55-60,
2.) See John Allen Gable, The Many-Sided Theodore Roosevelt: American Renaissance Man, Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg, Netherlands, 1986; John Allen Gable, "Theodore Roosevelt: The Renaissance Man as President," in William D. Pederson, Ann M. McLaurin, editors, The Rating Game in American Politics: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Irvington Publishers Inc., New York, 1987, pp. 336-353.
3.) On the historiography of Theodore Roosevelt, see particularly I. E. Cadenhead, Jr., Theodore Roosevelt: The Paradox of Progressivism, Barron's Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, New York, 1974; Richard H. Collin, "The Image of Theodore Roosevelt in American Historical Thought, 1885-1965," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1966; and Dewey W. Grantham, Jr., "Theodore Roosevelt in American Historical Writing, 1945-1960," Mid-America, Vol. XLIII, January, 1961, pp. 3-35. "Presidential polls" were taken by David L. Porter in 1982 and by the Chicago Tribune in 1982. Earlier polls were conducted by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., in 1948 and 1962. TR was ranked seventh in both Schlesinger polls. See David L. Porter, "American Historians Rate Our Presidents," in The Rating Game, op. cit., pp. 13-37.
4.) "An Act to Incorporate the Roosevelt Memorial Association, 41 Stat. 691, 1920." On the history of the Roosevelt Memorial Association, known after 1953 as the Theodore Roosevelt Association ("Act of Congress, May 21, 1953, 67 Stat. 27-28"), see John Allen Gable, "The Theodore Roosevelt Association: A Brief History," Theodore Roosevelt Association Newsletter, August, 1974, pp. 5-8; John Allen Gable," 'He Loved the Soaring Spirit of Man': The Life and Work of Hermann Hagedorn," Theodore Roosevelt Association Journal, Vol. III, no. 3, 1977, pp. 9-13; Alan Havig, "Presidential Images, History, and Homage: Memorializing Theodore Roosevelt, 1919-1967," American Quarterly, Vol. XXX, no. 4, 1978, pp. 514-532; Charles B. Hosmer, Jr., Presence of the Past: A History of the Preservation Movement in the United States Before Williamsburg, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1965, pp. 147-152; David M. Kahn, "The Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in New York City," Antiques, Vol. 116, July, 1979, pp. 176-181; Nan Netherton, "Delicate Beauty and Burly Majesty: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt Island," unpublished ms., Theodore Roosevelt Collection, Harvard; The Roosevelt Memorial Association: A Report of Its Activities, 1919-1921, Roosevelt Memorial Association, New York, 1921; Gary G. Roth, "The Roosevelt Memorial Association and the Preservation of Sagamore Hill, 1919-1953," unpublished M. A. thesis, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1980; Theodore Roosevelt Collection: Dictionary Catalogue and Shelflist, 5 volumes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1970; Theodore Roosevelt Association Film Collection: A Catalog, prepared by Wendy White-Hensen and Veronica M. Gillespie, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., 1986. The Woman's Roosevelt Memorial Association was incorporated by New York State on January 29, 1919. The RMA joined with the Woman's RMA in reconstructing the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace, 28 East 20th Street, New York City, opened to the public in 1923, and both organizations maintained headquarters at the site for many years. The name of the women's group was changed to the Women's Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Association in 1946. The names of the two organizations were changed to avoid confusion with Franklin D. Roosevelt. After years of cooperative effort, the two TR organizations merged in 1956 to form the present Theodore Roosevelt Association. See "Act of Congress, March 29, 1956, 70 Stat. 60, 1956," The RMA had earlier absorbed a local Roosevelt Memorial Association in Oyster Bay, New York.
5.) Roosevelt Memorial Association: Annual Report 1924, Roosevelt Memorial Association, New York, 1925, p. 12. For the RMA Committee on Publications, see RMA Executive Committee Minutes, typed mss., Theodore Roosevelt Association office, Oyster Bay, New York, November 8, 1920 and January 17, 1921.
6.) Samuel Eliot Morison's article on Albert Bushnell Hart in Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement Three, 1941-1945, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973, pp. 335-338; and see Harvard College Class of 1880: Fortieth Anniversary Report, Report IX-1920, privately printed, 1920, pp. 94-97; Harvard College Class of 1880: Fiftieth Anniversary Report X-1930, Plimpton Press, Norwood, Massachusetts, 1930, pp. 34-42; Harvard College Class of 1880: Secretary's Report XI-1941, Merrymount Press, Boston, 1941, p. 11.
7.) "Present in alphabetical ...," RMA: Annual Report 1924, op. cit., p. 12; "... What we are after …," Albert Bushnell Hart to Hermann Hagedorn, October 20, 1930, Theodore Roosevelt Collection, Harvard College Library; "will be a very interesting ...," Harvard College Class of 1880: Fiftieth Anniversary Report, op. cit. p. 35. Albert Bushnell Hart's correspondence with Hermann Hagedorn and the RMA, 1920-1936, is in the Theodore Roosevelt Collection, Harvard College Library.
8.) RMA Executive Committee Minutes, typed mss., Theodore Roosevelt Association, expense "so great," October 27, 1926, and see February 17, 1928, May 30, 1928, May 18, 1934, "because of his advanced years," May 28, 1939, and see May 10, 1940; Hart-Hagedorn correspondence, TR Collection, Harvard College Library; Samuel Eliot Morison on Hart, DAB, op. cit. On Herbert Ronald Ferleger, see Vita in Herbert Ronald Ferleger, "David A. Wells and the American Revenue System, 1865-1870," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, political science, Columbia University, New York, 1942; obituary, Philadelphia Inquirer, February 28, 1973; and file of letters from Ferleger to Hagedorn, TR Collection, Harvard College Library.
9.) RMA Executive Committee Minutes, typed mss., Theodore Roosevelt Association, May 10, 1940, October 7, 1940, May 27, 1941; Annual Report Roosevelt Memorial Association 1940, Annual Report Roosevelt Memorial Association 1941, typed mss., Theodore Roosevelt Association office, Oyster Bay, New York; Roosevelt Cyclopedia Account, April 7, 1941, TR Collection, Harvard College Library.
10.) Lawrence F. Abbott, Impressions of Theodore Roosevelt, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919, pp. 169-170. The estimate of 550,000 words is from Herbert Ronald Ferleger to Hermann Hagedorn, January 24, 1941, Theodore Roosevelt Collection, Harvard College Library. On TR as a writer, see Aloysius A. Norton, Theodore Roosevelt, Twayne's United States Authors Series, Twayne Publishers, G. K. Hall & Company, Boston, 1980.
11.) The contents of the Memorial and National editions are arranged differently, and unlike the National edition, the Memorial edition includes "Game Shooting in the West," Outing, 1888, and Good Hunting (1907) by Roosevelt, and the biography, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time, Shown in His Letters (1920), by Joseph Bucklin Bishop. Contemporaries of Roosevelt, including Hamlin Garland, Brander Matthews, Albert Bushnell Hart, Albert J. Beveridge, Henry L. Stimson, and Gifford Pinchot, contributed introductions for the Memorial and National editions.
12.) "Introduction," pp. vii-x, Vol.1, in Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time, Shown in His Letters, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1920. Also see "Introduction," pp. v-xiv, Vol. 1, in Index to the Theodore Roosevelt Papers, three volumes, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1969. For some seven years the Roosevelt Memorial Association provided funds for the indexing and organization of the Library of Congress collection. In the end papers of the 1941 edition of the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia, not included in this edition, it was announced that Herbert Ronald Ferleger would edit the publication of TR's letters. But a few years later, the Association decided to give this task to a team of scholars at Harvard, including Elting E. Morison, John M. Blum, and others.
13.) White quoted from "Foreword," and Hart and Ferleger from "Editors' Note," in Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia.
14.) "Realizable Ideals" was the title of a series of five lectures (the Earl Lectures) delivered by Roosevelt at
the Pacific Theological Seminary, Berkeley, California, in 1911, and published in 1912. See Cyclopedia, pp. 241-
242. "Keep your eyes on the stars ...," from "The Journey on the Ridge Crest," speech at Groton School, May 24,
1904, in National Edition, Works of Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1926, Vol. XIII, p.
557, hereinafter cited as National Edition. See Cyclopedia, p. 240. "The Strenuous Life," speech at the Hamilton
Club, Chicago, Illinois, April 10, 1899, National Edition, Vol. XIII, pp. 319-331. See Cyclopedia, p. 587. "The
man...in the arena," from "Citizenship in a Republic," address at the Sorbonne, Paris, April 23, 1910, National
Edition, Vol. XIII, p. 510. See Cyclopedia, p. 2. "The joy of living...," from "Author's Foreword" to A Book-Lover's
Holidays in the Open (1916), National Edition, Vol. III, p. 183. "Life is a great adventure," from "The Adventure of
Living," speech at Occidental College, Los Angeles, California, March 22, 1911, National Edition, Vol. XIII, p.
578. "The Great Adventure" was the title of an essay and a book published by TR in 1918. See Cyclopedia, pp. 131,
15.) "The vital things...," from speech at Montgomery, Alabama, October 24, 1905, in Presidential Addresses and State Papers, Review of Reviews Company, New York, 1910, Vol. IV, pp. 529-530. H. G. Wells quoted by Edward Wagenknecht, The Seven Worlds of Theodore Roosevelt, Longmans, Green & Company, New York, 1958, p. 287.
16.) Elihu Root from speech in New York City, October 27, 1919, quoted in front notes of Cyclopedia. "The growth...," from "The Progressive Party," Century, October, 1913, National Edition, Vol. XVII, p. 393. See Cyclopedia, p. 93. "The foundation-stone...," from "The Man With the Muck-Rake," speech, Washington, D.C., April 14, 1906, National Edition, Vol, XVI, p. 424. See Cyclopedia, p. 69.
17.) "Hamiltonian means...," George E. Mowry, Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1946, p. 145. On the use of the phrase "Square Deal," see Presidential Addresses and State Papers, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 371, Vol. II, pp. 446, 480-481, and Cyclopedia, pp. 379, 582-583. The phrase "New Nationalism" was coined by Herbert Croly in his book The Promise of American Life, Macmillan Company, New York, 1909, Croly clearly stated in his book that Roosevelt was the embodiment of the "New Nationalism" philosophy. On the New Nationalism, see particularly Charles Forcey, The Crossroads of Liberalism: Croly, Weyl, Lippmann and the Progressive Era, 1900-1925, Oxford University Press, New York, 1961. Also see Cyclopedia, p. 385, and Theodore Roosevelt, The New Nationalism, The Outlook Company, New York, 1910. The key elements of TR's Hamiltonian-Jeffersonian synthesis were expressed early on in Roosevelt's biography Gouverneur Morris (1888), National Edition, Vol. VII.
18.) "Steward of the people," Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography (1913), National Edition, Vol. XX, p. 347. See Cyclopedia, p. 466. "Hamiltonian in their belief...," Autobiography, National Edition, Vol. XX, p. 414. Elting E. Morison quoted from "Introduction," pp. viii-ix, in Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, Da Capo Press paperback edition, New York, 1985.
19.) "The Purpose of the Progressive Party," speech, New York City, October 30, 1912, National Edition, Vol. XVII, p. 336.
20.) "Apostle of the obvious," Hamilton Basso quoted in Norton, Theodore Roosevelt, op. cit., p. 142;
"Polonius," Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It, Vintage Books, Alfred
A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 1948, p. 229.
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