Born at 28 East 20th
Street, New York City, child of Theodore ("Thee" or "Greatheart")
and Martha ("Mittie") Bulloch Roosevelt.
There were four children
in all -
Anna ("Bamie" or "Bye"), Theodore ("Teedie" to his family and very
close friends. He hated to be called "Teddy"),
and Corinne ("Coney").
Abraham Lincoln's funeral procession from an upstairs window of
his grandfather's house on Union Square, New York City. With him
are his younger brother Elliott and a friend named Edith Kermit
as a freshman - Dec 1876]
Roosevelt, Sr. dies from stomach cancer at the family's new home,
6 West 57th Street, NYC.
from Harvard, magna cum laude, member Phi Beta Kappa.
Law School in October 1880; discontinued study of law in 1882 without
taking a degree or becoming a lawyer.
Marries Alice Hathaway
Lee of Chestnut Hill, MA on his 22nd birthday.
(Alice born July 29, 1861)
to New York State Assembly from New York City (the youngest man
ever elected to the Assembly) by a margin of 3,490 votes to 1,989.
Serves three one-year terms, 1882, 1883 and 1884. Minority Leader
first book, The
Naval War of 1812, written partly while TR was in college.
It set the standard for studies on naval strategy and was required
reading at the Naval Academy in Annapolis for many years.
New York State Assembly.
put myself in the way of things happening; and they happened."..."During
the three years' service in the Legislature I worked on a
very simple philosophy of government. It was that personal
character and initiative are the prime requisites in political
and social life."
||Joins the National Guard. Commissioned a Second Lieutenant
in B Company of New York's Eighth Regiment. Would be promoted to
Captain the following year.
||Reelected by the widest margin of any legislator in
New York (by a two-to-one majority). Becomes Minority Leader.
Is taken on a tour of New York City tenements by Samuel Gompers
and is horrified by the conditions he witnesses. Works to pass legislation
to ease conditions.
two cattle ranches, Maltese Cross and Elkhorn, near Medora, Dakota
Territory (in region now part of North Dakota).
1st child, daughter Alice Lee Roosevelt at his home on 57th Street
TR's mother Martha Bulloch Roosevelt dies of typhoid fever; hours
later, in the same house on 57th Street, TR's wife Alice Hathaway
Lee Roosevelt also dies from Bright's disease - a chronic kidney
infection which had been masked by her pregnancy.
actual diary entry - then use your back key to return here]
was a grim and an evil fate, but I never have believed it
did any good to flinch or yield for any blow, nor does it
lighten the blow to cease from working." (Private letter,
Signs a contract with the firm of Joseph Wood & Sons of Lawrence,
Long Island, to build a home in Oyster Bay at the insistence of
his sister Bamie, who convinced him his daughter would need a
home. He had originally planned the home with his wife Alice,
and was planning to name it Leeholm in honor of her family name.
The house, completed in 1885, would later be named Sagamore Hill
in honor of Sagamore Mohannis, the Indian chief who used the hill
as a meeting place and signed his people's rights to the land
over to the settlers in the 1660s.
||As Chairman of the Committee on Cities, presented
report which resulted in vital changes in the Charter of New York
||Delegate to the Republican National Convention.
||Ranchman in the
badlands of the Dakota Territory.
was still the Wild West in those days, the Far West of Owen
Wister's stories, and Frederic Remington's drawings, the soldier
and the cowpuncher. The land of the West has gone now, 'gone,
gone with the lost Atlantis,' gone to the isle of ghosts and
strange dead memories...In that land we led a hardy life.
Ours was the glory of work and the joy of living."
Hill, TR's Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York home, completed.
||Publishes Hunting Trips of a Ranchman
Abram S. Hewitt, the
son-in-law of Peter Cooper defeats TR as Republican candidate
for mayor of New York City. Hewitt's
New York City home would later become the Cooper-Hewitt Museum.
anyway, I had a bully time."
Marries to Edith Kermit
Carow in London.
[Edith born August 6, 1861, Norwich, CT]
||Publishes Life of Thomas Hart Benton.
||TR and Edith
Roosevelt took up residence at Sagamore Hill. They eventually have
five children: Theodore (1887), Kermit (1889), Ethel Carow (1891),
Archibald Bulloch (1894), Quentin (1897).
| Theodore's first son (second child), Theodore Roosevelt,
Junior is born at Sagamore Hill.
Publishes Life of Gouverneur Morris.
Publishes Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail.
Publishes Essays in Practical Politics.
|Kermit Roosevelt (third child) is born at Sagamore
||First two volumes of The
Winning of the West published.
Two more volumes of his four-volume history of the frontier would
follow in 1894 and 1896.
7, 1889- May 5,
U.S. Civil Service
opposition to reform is generally well led by skilled parliamentarians,
and they fight with the vindictiveness natural to men who
see a chance of striking at the institution which has baffled
their greed. These men have a gift at office-mongering, just
as other men have a peculiar knack at picking pockets; and
they are joined by all the honest dull men, who vote wrong
out of pure ignorance, and by a very few sincere and intelligent,
but wholly misguided people."
|| Publishes History of New York, a history
of New York City.
||Birth of his daughter, Ethel Carow Roosevelt, at Sagamore
||Published The Wilderness Hunter.
| April 10, 1894
||Son Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, born in Washington,
|August 14, 1894
|| Brother Elliott Roosevelt (father of Eleanor Roosevelt)
||Publishes Hero Tales from American History,
in collaboration with Henry Cabot Lodge.
|May 5, 1895
US Civil Service Commission to become Police Commissioner of NYC.
6, 1895- April
President of the Board
of Police Commissioners, New York City.
press attention for his reforms, including "midnight rambles"
in search of policemen not at their posts. Ordered that all police
officers must report for target practice, thus establishing the
foundation of the Police Academy, one of the first in the country.
is nothing of the purple in it. It is as grimy as all work
for municipal reform over here must be for some decades to
come; and is inconceivably arduous, disheartening, and irritating,
beyond almost all other work of the kind...It is not work
to be done in a rose-water basis."
||Publishes American Ideals.
Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President William
shots that hit are the shots that count."
|November 19, 1897
||Son Quentin Roosevelt, born in Washington, DC.
|| A little more than one year later TR
resigns as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to become Lieutenant-Colonel
of the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment (the "Rough Riders").
man's usefulness depends upon his living up to his ideals
in so far as he can. Now I have consistently preached what
our opponents are pleased to call 'Jingo Doctrines' for a
good many years. One of the commonest taunts directed at men
like myself is that we are armchair and parlor Jingos who
wish to see others do what we only advocate doing. I care
very little for such a taunt, except as it affects my usefulness;
but I cannot afford to disregard that fact that my power for
good, whatever it may be, would be gone if I didn't try to
live up to the doctrines I have to preach."
Sept. 16, 1898
First US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, the "Rough
Riders," during Spanish-American War. TR commissioned Lieutenant
Colonel, but later promoted to Colonel of the regiment before the
Battle of San Juan Heights.
|June 24, 1898
|| Baptism of fire at Las Guasimas.
||Battle of San Juan Heights. Is later
nominated for, but denied,
the Congressional Medal of Honor. One hundred years later TR
is awarded the Medal
for the political effect of my actions, in the first place,
I never can get on in politics, and in the second, I would
rather have led that charge and earned my colonelcy than served
three terms in the US Senate. It makes me feel as though I
could now leave something to my children which will serve
as an apology for my having existed ."
|August 14, 1898
The Rough Riders land at Montauk, Long Island,
to begin a six-week quarantine.
returned from Cuba, in 6 week quarantine at Camp Wikoff, Montauk,
Long Island, New York, Aug-Sept 1898]
|September 27, 1898
|| Nominated by the Republican Party for Governor of
New York State.
|October 5, 1898
||Opening of campaign at Carnegie Music
Hall. Speech on The Duties of a Great Nation.
am not having an entirely pleasant campaign. I may win yet,
and I am going in to do everything that can be done ."
Elected Governor of New York State (661,715 votes) with a plurality
of 17,786 votes. His opponent was Democrat Augustus Van Wyck of
Brooklyn (643,921 votes).
At that time boss rule was at its very zenith...In each case
I did my best to persuade Mr. Platt not to oppose me...It
was only after I had exhausted all the resources of my patience
that I would finally, if he still proved obstinate, tell him
that I intended to make the fight anyhow."
|December 31, 1898
||Takes oath of office as Governor of New York before
Secretary of State John Palmer. January 2. Inauguration in Assembly
Chamber. The day was so cold that the brass instruments of the band
escorting him to the State Capitol building froze into silence.
Annual message to legislature, dealing with taxation, the Erie Canal,
commerce, labor, the National Guard, roads, civil service, state
forests and the economy.
|| Publishes The Rough Riders. First installment
appears in Scribner's in January.
|January 2, 1899
|| Inauguration as Governor in Assembly Chamber. The
day was so cold that the brass instruments of the band escorting
him to the State Capitol building froze into silence. Annual message
to legislature, dealing with taxation, the Erie Canal, commerce,
labor, the National Guard, roads, civil service, state forests and
|January 16, 1899
|| First weekly State cabinet meeting.
1898 - Dec. 31,
of New York.
Oyster Bay. Elected Vice President. The McKinley-Roosevelt ticket
received 7,219,530 votes to 6,358,071 for Democrats William Jennings
Bryan and Adlai E. Stevenson.
If I have been put on the shelf, my enemies will find that
I can make it a cheerful place of abode."
|December 31, 1900
||Oyster Bay. Evening in Albany for farewell dinner
given by Timothy L. Woodruff.
Sept. 14, 1901
of the United States.
|Sept. 6, 1901
President William McKinley shot while attending the Pan American
Exposition in Buffalo, NY.
TR, on a hiking trip with his family, is summoned from Mount Tahawus
in the Adirondacks to Buffalo.
||At age 42,
Roosevelt becomes the 26th President of the United States
and is sworn into office at about 3:15 p.m. at the Ansley Wilcox
Mansion, 641 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, the youngest man ever to
become President (John F. Kennedy was the youngest man ever
elected to that office at the age of 43).
The course I followed, of regarding the Executive as subject
only to the people, and, under the Constitution, bound to
serve the people affirmatively in cases where the Constitution
does not explicitly forbid him to render the service, was
substantially the course followed by both Andrew Jackson and
Sept. 14 1901-
Mar. 4, 1909
President of the United States.
suit under Sherman Act to dissolve Northern Securities Company in
the first of 45 antitrust suits.
Crater Lake National
Park, Oregon, established.
Parks established by TR are:
- Wind Cave National
Park, SD (1903);
Hill, ND (1904);
Platt National Park, OK (1906);
Mesa Verde National Park, CO (1906)
Reclamation Act signed, leading to first 21 federal
irrigation projects including Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Arizona.
| June 28, 1902
|| Isthmian Canal Act.
Anthracite Coal Strike.
settles the Venezuelan Affair.
of Commerce and Labor established.
Act for railroads signed.
Pelican Island, Florida as first federal bird reservation; total
of 51 bird reservations established by Roosevelt administration.
||Roosevelt settles the Alaskan Boundary dispute.
|November 13, 1903
||Recognition of the Republic of Panama after Panama's
secession from Colombia.
with Panama for building of Panama Canal, which was completed in
declared itself independent and wanted to complete the Panama
Canal, and opened negotiations with us. I had two courses
open. I might have taken the matter under advisement and put
it before the Senate, in which case we should have had a number
of most able speeches on the subject, and they would have
been going on now, and the Panama Canal would be in the dim
future yet. We would have had a half a century of discussion
|December 17, 1903
||Reciprocity Treaty with Cuba.
President over Democrat Alton B. Parker.
am glad to be elected President in my own right."
Corollary" to Monroe Doctrine in annual message to Congress.
Forest, Oklahoma made first federal game preserve. Other federal
game preserves established by TR are Grand Canyon (1908); Fire Island,
Alaska (1909); and National Bison Range, Montana (1909).
Forest Service established.
for second term as President.
|March 17, 1905
||Acting as stand-in for his deceased brother
Elliott, he gave away his niece Eleanor Roosevelt at her wedding
to her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in
New York City.
|June 2, 1905
|| Wichita Forest, Oklahoma, made first federal
game preserve. Other federal game preserves established by TR
are the Grand Canyon (1908); Fire Island, Alaska (1909); and National
Bison Range, Montana (1909).
Treaty signed ending Russo-Japanese War after mediation by TR.
||Published Outdoor Pastimes of an American Hunter.
Conference opened as TR mediated a dispute between France and Germany
over Morocco, preserving Moroccan independence and the European
balance of power, thus for a time saving the peace in North Africa
||Marriage of his daughter Alice to Ohio Congressman
Nicholas Longworth in a magnificent White House ceremony.
Antiquities or National
Monuments Act signed, by which TR established the first 18
"National Monuments," including:
- Devils Tower (1906),
- Muir Woods (1908),
- Grand Canyon (1908),
- Mount Olympus (1909)
|June 11, 1906
|| Forest Homestead Act.
Act giving Interstate Commerce Commission power to regulate railroad
Food and Drug Act and federal meat inspection law.
and Mrs. Roosevelt go to Panama to inspect building of the canal,
the first time a president leaves US while in office.
Nobel Peace Prize for ending
Russo-Japanese War in 1905; first American to win Nobel Prize in
any of the six categories. (TR received award while in Europe in
the Great White Fleet around the world.
It will be the first circumnavigation of the globe by a national
of Governors met at the White House to consider problems of conservation.
a National Conservation Commission to prepare first inventory of
Conservation Conference convened at White House.
|February 22, 1909
||Return of the American Great White Fleet
my own judgement the most important service that I rendered
to peace was the voyage of the battle-fleet around the world."
ends with inauguration of successor William Howard Taft.
Taft campaign created "Billy Possum" as a
character to represent "William Howard Taft".
Somehow the "possum" was never as popular
as the "teddy bear". Here the tag on the animal
on the left says "Teddy Bear" and the tag
on the right animal says "Billy Possum". The
animals shake paws as the "possum" representing
Taft walks toward the Capital Dome representing the
- June 1910
expedition to Africa to gather specimens for Smithsonian Institution
with son Kermit, then toured Europe.
|April 23, 1910
in a Republic" speech at the Sorbonne, Paris.
Man in the Arena"
quote from that "Citizenship in a Republic" speech becomes
"It is not the critic who counts: not the man who points
out how the strong man stumbles or where the doer of deeds
could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who
is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and
sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes
up short again and again, because there is no effort without
error or shortcoming, but who knows the great enthusiasms,
the great devotions, who spends himself for a worthy cause;
who, at the best, knows, in the end, the triumph of high
achievement, and who, at the worst, if he fails, at least
he fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never
be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory
|May 20, 1910
||Serves as Special Ambassador to England at the funeral
of King Edward VII.
|May 31, 1910
||Address at the Guildhall, London.
|June 18, 1910
||Returns to New York from African Safari and European
||Publishes African Game Trails.
"New Nationalism" address, Osawatomie, Kansas.
||Becomes an editor for Outlook Magazine
candidacy for Republican nomination against President Taft, declaring
"my hat is in the ring."
||Publishes Realizable Ideals.
National Convention meets in Chicago and renominates incumbent Taft
even though TR has won all but one primary and caucus. Roosevelt
supporters bolt, charging "theft" of nomination.
Convention of new National
Progressive party (nicknamed "Bull Moose" party) held in Chicago,
adopts reform platform, and nominates TR for President and Governor
Hiram W. Johnson of California for Vice President.
country will not be a good place for any of us to live in
if it is not a reasonably good place for all of us to live
in."..."Laws are enacted for the benefit of the whole people,
and must not be construed as permitting discrimination against
some of the people."
in the chest while entering an automobile outside the Hotel Gilpatrick
in Milwaukee, WI by would-be assassin John Nepomuk Schrank at about
8:00 p.m. Campaigning on the "Bull Moose" ticket, TR delivers
a 90-minute speech
at the Auditorium in Milwaukee before seeking medical attention.
The bullet would never be removed. [Schrank was declared insane
on November 13, 1912 and committed to the Northern State Hospital
for the Insane at Oshkosh, WI, and died at the Central State Hospital
in Waupun, WI on September 15,1943.]
did not care a rap for being shot. It is a trade risk, which
every prominent public man ought to accept as a matter of
Democrat Woodrow Wilson
elected president over TR, who came in second, and Republican
Taft. Roosevelt received the largest percentage of votes of any
third party candidate.
Wilson won the election:
popular votes, 435 Electoral votes/40 states.
Roosevelt came in second:
4,119,538 votes , 88 Electoral votes/6 states.
(27.4% of the popular vote)
Taft came in third:
3,484,980 votes, 8 Electoral votes/2 states.
Theodore Roosevelt - An Autobiography and
History as Literature and Other Essays.
Roosevelt vs. Newett, TR's successful libel suit against
Michigan editor who called him a drunk.
South America for lecture tour and jungle expedition.
April 27, 1914
sponsored by American Museum of Natural History and Brazilian
government, explores Brazil's "River of Doubt," now named "Rio
Roosevelt" or Rio Teodoro". Kermit again accompanied his
father. Theodore Roosevelt nearly dies on the trip.
had to go. It was my last chance to be a boy."
|| Publishes Through the Brazilian Wilderness
and, in collaboration with Edmund Heller, Life Histories of
African Game Animals.
|Jan. 1, 1915
||Publishes America and the World War.
The kind of 'neutrality' which seeks to preserve 'peace' by
timidly refusing to live up to our plighted word and to denounce
and take action against such wrong as that committed in the
case of Belgium, is unworthy of an honorable and powerful
people. Dante reserved a special place of infamy in the Inferno
for those base angels who dared side neither with evil or
with good. Peace is ardently to be desired, but only as the
handmaiden of righteousness. There can be no such peace until
well-behaved, highly civilized small nations are protected
from oppression and subjugation."
May 22, 1915
Barnes vs. Roosevelt: TR wins libel suit launched by Republican
leader William Barnes, Jr.
Publishes A Booklover's Holidays in the Open and
Fear God and Take Your Own Part.
and Progressive national conventions meet in Chicago, at same time
in different halls, in an effort at a joint nomination.
nominate Theodore Roosevelt; Republicans nominate Charles Evans
Hughs; TR declines Progressive nomination and eventually backs Hughes.
have room for but one loyalty, loyalty to the United States.
We have room for but one language, the language of the Declaration
of Independence and the Gettysburg Speech."
permission of President Wilson to raise, equip and lead volunteer
division for service in France in World War I.
is not the end. Righteousness is the end."..."If I must choose
between righteousness and peace I choose righteousness."
Wilson refuses Roosevelt's service request.
family supports the War effort. All four of his sons enlist.
His daughter Ethel serves as a Red Cross nurse at the American Ambulance
Hospital in Paris, accompanying her husband, surgeon Dr. Richard
|| Published Foes of Our Own Household.
Roosevelt, TR's youngest son, killed while serving as a fighter
pilot in France.
|| Roosevelt refuses Republican nomination for Governor
of New York.
||Published The Great Adventure.
present business is to fight, and continue fighting until
Germany is brought to her knees. Our next business will be
to help guarantee the peace of justice for the world at large,
and to set in order the affairs of our own household."
in his sleep at Sagamore Hill of coronary embolism (arterial blood
clot) at age 60.
of us who give service, and stand ready for sacrifice, are
torch-bearers. We run with the torches until we fall, content
if we can then pass them to the hands of some other runners...Both
life and death are parts of the same Great Adventure."
Funeral Procession for the burial of Theodore
at Young's Memorial Cemetery
in Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York on January 8, 1919.
January 2001 by The Theodore Roosevelt Association. All rights
reserved. Text and images MAY be copied and used by students and
teachers for academic purposes.
Images and text may not be used for publication or resale without
express written permission.
Theodore Roosevelt Many-Sided American, edited by Natalie
Naylor, Douglas Brinkley, John Allen Gable, 1992; based on papers
presented at Conference on "Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of
contributions from the Theodore Roosevelt Association staff and