appeals to the higher qualities, including the stern
qualities, of his soul. (1916.) Mem. Ed. XX, 238; Nat.
Ed. XVIII, 205.
RIGHTS—PROTECTION OF. There must be equal
rights for all, and special privileges for none; but we
must remember that to achieve this ideal it is necessary
to construe rights and privileges very differently from
the way they were necessarily construed, by statesmen
and people alike, a century ago. We must strive to
achieve our ideal by an exercise of governmental power
which the conditions did not render necessary a century
ago, and of which our forefathers would have felt
suspicious. This is no reflection on the wisdom of our
forefathers; it is simply an acknowledgment that
conditions have now changed. Outlook, September 3,
1910, p. 22.
____________. We are for the people's rights. Where
these rights can best be obtained by exercise of the
powers of the State, there we are for States' rights.
Where they can best be obtained by the exercise of the
powers of the National Government, there we are for
national rights. We are not interested in this as an
abstract doctrine; we are interested in it concretely.
Wisconsin possesses advanced laws in the interest of
labor. There are other States in this respect more
backward, where wage-workers, and especially women
and child wage-workers, are left at the mercy of greedy
and unscrupulous capitalists. (Century, October 1913.)
Mem. Ed. XIX, 543; Nat. Ed. XVII, 399.
RIGHTS, HUMAN. I believe in property rights, but I
believe in them as adjuncts to, and not as substitutes
for, human rights. I believe that normally the rights of
property coincide with the rights of man: but where
they do not, then the rights of man must be put above
the rights of property. I believe in shaping the ends of
government to protect property; but wherever the
alternative must be faced, I am for man and not for
property. Outlook, September 3, 1910, p. 28.
RIGHTS ADD DUTIES. I have not the slightest
sympathy with any movement which looks to excusing
men and women for the nonperformance of duty and
fixes attention only on rights and not on duties.
Outlook, August 27, 1910, p. 922.
____________. If there is any lesson, more essential
than any other, for this country to learn, it is the lesson
that the enjoyment of rights should be made conditional
upon the performance of duty. For one failure in the
history of our country which is due to the people not
asserting their rights, there are hundreds due to their not
performing their duties. (Preface to E. J. Scott and L. B.
Stowe, Booker T. Washington, dated August 28, 1916.)
Mem. Ed. XII, 549; Nat. Ed. XI, 274.
____________. No human being is entitled to any
"right," any privilege, that is not correlated with the
obligation to perform duty. (1917.) Mem. Ed. XXI, 9;
Nat. Ed. XIX, 8.
____________. Both capitalists and wage-workers must
understand that the performance of duties and the
enjoyment of rights go hand in hand. Any shirking of
obligation toward the nation, and toward the people that
make up the nation, deprives the offenders of all moral
right to the enjoyment of privileges of any kind. This
applies alike to corporations and to labor-unions, to rich
men and poor men, to big men and little men. (At
Cooper Union, New York City, November 3, 1916.)
Mem. Ed. XX, 518; Nat. Ed. XVIII, 444.
____________. The people should be greater than any
one man, and the people cannot be greater unless the
people think of duty more than of right, just as the
individual man who rises has to think first of duty and
then of his rights. They must think of rights as
developed in duty rather than of only their individual
rights. Unless the people, unless the sovereign, develop
the capacity to think, each one, of what is due from him
to his fellows and not of what is due from his fellow to
him, unless they develop that capacity, this country,
based as it is on popular government, cannot achieve
the place that it must and will achieve. (At University
of Wisconsin, Madison, April 15, 1911.) Mem. Ed. XV,
546; Nat. Ed. XIII, 593.
RIGHTS. See also DUTY; EQUALITY; FREEDOM;
INTERNATIONAL DUTIES; NEUTRAL RIGHTS; PRIVILEGE;
PROPERTY RIGHTS; WOMEN.
RIIS, JACOB A. Recently a man well qualified to pass
judgment alluded to Mr. Jacob Riis as "the most useful
citizen of New York." Those fellow-citizens of Mr. Riis
who best know his work will be most apt to agree with
this statement. The countless evils which lurk in the
dark corners of our civic institutions, which stalk
abroad in the slums, and have their permanent abode in
the crowded tenement