AGRICULTURE ALASKAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE
the United States, operated by men who, as a class, are
steadfast, singleminded, and industrious, form the basis
of all the other achievements of the American people
and are more fruitful than all their other resources. The
men on those six million farms receive from the
protective tariff what they most need, and that is the
best of all possible markets. All other classes depend
upon the farmer, but the farmer in turn depends upon
the market they furnish him for his produce. . . .
American farmers have prospered because the growth
of their market has kept pace with the growth of their
farms. The additional market continually furnished for
agricultural products by domestic manufacturers has
been far in excess of the outlet to other lands. An export
trade in farm products is necessary to dispose of our
surplus; and the export trade of our farmers, both in
animal products and in plant products, has very largely
increased. Without the enlarged home market to keep
this surplus down, we should have to reduce production
or else feed the world at less than the cost of
production. (Letter accepting Republican nomination
for President, September 12, 1904.) Mem. Ed. XVIII,
522-523; Nat. Ed. XVI, 392-393.
construct, own, and operate the railways in Alaska. The
government should keep the fee of all the coalfields and
allow them to be operated by lessees with the
conditions in the lease that non-use shall operate as a
forfeit. Telegraph-lines should be operated as the
railways are. Moreover, it would be well in Alaska to
try a system of land taxation which will, so far as
possible, remove all the burdens from those who
actually use the land, whether for building or for
agricultural purposes, and will operate against any man
who holds the land for speculation, or derives an
income from it based, not on his own exertions, but on
the increase in value due to activities not his own.
There is very real need that this nation shall seriously
prepare itself for the task of remedying social injustice
and meeting social problems by well-considered
governmental effort; and the best preparation for such
wise action is to test by actual experiment under
favorable conditions the devices which we have reason
to believe will work well, but which it is difficult to
apply in old settled communities without preliminary
experiment. (Before Progressive National Convention,
Chicago, August 6, 1912.) Mem. Ed. XIX, 406; Nat.
Ed. XVII, 294.
ALASKA—FUTURE OF. Alaska has interests of vital
importance not merely to her but to the entire Union.
Alaska contains a territory which will within this
century support as large a population as the combined
Scandinavian countries of Europe; those countries from
which has sprung as wonderful a race as ever imprinted
its characteristics upon the history of civilization.
Exactly as the Scandinavian peoples have left their
mark upon the entire history of Europe, so we shall see
Alaska with its mines, its lumber, its fisheries, with its
possibilities in agriculture and stock-raising, with its
possibilities of commercial command, with the
tremendous development that is going on within it even
now, produce, as hard and vigorous a people as any
portion of North America. (At Seattle, Wash., May 23,
1903.) Presidential Addresses and State Papers II, 428-
AGRICULTURE. See also COUNTRY LIFE
COMMISSION; FARM; FARMING.
AGUINALDO. See IMPERIALISM; PHILIPPINES.
AIRPLANES . See AVIATION.
ALASKA. Some form of local self-government should
be provided, as simple and inexpensive as possible; it is
impossible for the Congress to devote the necessary
time to all the little details of necessary Alaskan
legislation. Road-building and railway-building should
be encouraged. The governor of Alaska should be given
an ample appropriation wherewith to organize a force to
preserve the public peace. Whiskey-selling to the
natives should be made a felony. The coalland laws
should be changed so as to meet the peculiar needs of
the Territory. . . . There should be another judicial
division established. As early as possible lighthouses
and buoys should be established as aids to navigation.
(Seventh Annual Message, Washington, December 3,
1907.) Mem. Ed. XVII, 535-536; Nat. Ed. XV, 456.
____________. Alaska should be developed at once,
but in the interest of the actual settler. In Alaska the
government has an opportunity of starting in what is
almost a fresh field to work out various problems by
actual experiment. The government should at once
ALASKAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE. The treaty of
1825 between Russia and England was undoubtedly
intended to cut off England, which owned the
Hinterland, from access to the sea. The word lisière
used in the treaty means the strip of territory bordering
all the navigable water of that portion of the Alaskan
coast affected by the treaty, and this strip of territory is
American of course. Equally of course in interpreting
the treaty a prime consideration is